The modern brigade system

Late in the 19th century the chef G.A. Escoffier created the modern brigade system while working at the Savoy Hotel in London.

He rganized the kitchen as hierarchical ladder of authorities, duties and funcions.


At the top of this ladder we find the HEAD CHEF (chef de cousine or executive chef) who coordinates and supervises the kitchen activities, works out the prices of the menu and is in charge of the menu planning.



The head chef is assisted by an UNDER CHEF (sous chef or second chef) who supervises how the food is prepared, portioned and arranged according to the head chef's directions.

Subordinate are the SECTIONS CHEFS. Each one is responsable of the preparation of particulare food and dishes.


At the bottom of the ladder we find:
- The assistant (commis), they help the selection chefs in the kitchen
- The dish washer (plongers) in charge of loading and unloading dishwasher
- Store keepers in charge of the food and storage.





SAUCE COOK (chef saucier) prepares the sauces, cooks the meat, poultry and game dishes except roasted or grilled


LARDER COOK (chef garde manger) is in charge of the larder and prepares salads and starters


SOUP CHEF (chef potager) prepares all the soups


FISH COOK (chef poissonier) prepares all fish courses


ROAST CHEF (chef rotisseur) prepares all the roasted dishes and the grills


VEGETABLE COOK (chef entremetier) prepares the vegetables, pasta, rice, eggs...



PASTRY CHEF (chef patissier) is in charge of pastry preparations (fresh pasta, cakes, brioches...)




Cuochi di Servizio
-Cuoco delle salse (chef saucier)  prepara le salse, cuoce la carne, impiatta il pollame nei piatti ad eccezione di arrosti o grigliate.
Cuoco della Dispensa (chef garde manger): e' in carica della dispensa e prepara le insalate e gli antipasti.
Cuoco delle zuppe (chef potager) prepara tutte le zuppe.
-Cuoco del pesce ( chef poissonier)prepara tutti i piatti di pesce.
-Cuoco dell' arrosto ( chef rotusseur): prepara tutti i piatti che si arrostiscono e i sughi.
-Cuoco delle Verdure (chef ebtremetier) prepara le verdure,la pasta,il riso,le uova....
-Chef della pasta ( chef patisser) e' incaricato di tutte le preparazioni riguardanti la pasta (pasta fresca, torte,brioches...)  





Put in order the following recipe:


1) the/Wash/chickpeas/throughly
2) in/hours/water/Soak/24/sufficient/for/them
3) in the same/Put/water/garlic,/pepper/rosemary,/salt/and/2 cloves of
4) enough/Cover/adding/them/water
6)ripe tomatoes,/the ramaining/In a pan/peeled/garlic/Put the/and the anchovy fillets
8)the sauce,/the chickpeas/When/pasta/add/then/are soft,